Construction began in and was completed in It was built on a small artificial island just off shore. West Battery was intended to complement the three-tiered Castle Williams on Governors Island , which was East Battery, to defend New York City from British forces in the tensions that marked the run-up to the War of , but it never saw action in that or any war. Subsequent landfill expanded Battery Park, and the fort was incorporated into the mainland of Manhattan Island. The United States Army stopped using the fort in , and it was leased to New York City as a place of public entertainment. It opened as Castle Garden on July 3, , a name by which it was popularly known for most of its existence, even to the present time.
Excavations in these areas have found the ruins of cities geared variously towards trade, politics, or religion. Some had large, dense populations , but others carried out urban activities in the realms of politics or religion without having large associated populations. Among the early Old World cities, Mohenjo-daro of the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan , existing from about BC, was one of the largest, with a population of 50, or more and a sophisticated sanitation system. These sites appear planned in a highly regimented and stratified fashion, with a minimalistic grid of rooms for the workers and increasingly more elaborate housing available for higher classes. In the following centuries, independent city-states of Greece developed the polis , an association of male landowning citizens who collectively constituted the city.
History The central depot for the first railroad linking California to the eastern states arrived in Oakland on November 8, at Broadway and 7th Street. The original proprietor, Jacob Pantosky, was a self-described poultry dealer, broker, speculator, junk dealer, shoe merchant and hotel manager. The broad trend of suburbanization combined with the local urban renewal program contributed to the depopulation of Oakland. As the center declined, so did commercial traffic at the market and maintenance of the facility.